Monthly Archives: April 2012

Hyperlocal insights for community enablers exploration

Here’s a post from my personal blog, highlighting some insights for our new exploration into community enablers and digital tech. The interviews with Sean Brady, Lorna Prescott and Annette Albert are particularly relevant – and the growing use of
The Talk About Local unconference in Birmingham yesterday was a highly sociable and enjoyable chance to catch up on the development of hyperlocal blogs and online communities … and also gather some insights for Socialreporters’ new exploration into community enabling and digital tech.
Here are the video interviews that I shot. I’ve summarised below, with links to each interview. The playlist is here.

In thinking about the new exploration, I was particularly interested in Sean Brady’s description of how he became a network weaver after being a parish councillor (referencing Tessy Britton and Eileen Conn along the way), and Lorna Prescott’s conviction that people working in local communities can start using digital tools easily with some support. Nick Booth and Dave Briggs provide some tips on how to do that.
Annette Albert provides an honest assessment of what it means for a non tech person to run a local online community – an enormous achievement on her part, with 1200 members. Vicky Sargent and Steve Brett emphasise the need to blend online and face-to-face activity to engage people in neighbourhood plans.
The online community notice board got a lot of mentions as a way to curate information about events, online activity and wants and offers. I can see that becoming even more popular. Franzi Bahrle is taking an interesting approach with VisualBrum.
On the wider front, I was particularly interested to hear from Will Perrin and Alex Delaney that TAL and Media Trust will be collaborating in future. Maybe there’s scope for a tie-in with People’s Voice Media, whose Institute of Community Reporters I wrote about recently. Philip John and Simon Perry talked about the Hyperlocal Alliance, and Dave Briggs has invited everyone to join in developing the Hyperlocal Handbook.
Here’s the interviews

The first Talk About Local unconference was in Stoke on Trent in 2009, as I reported here, and where I shot these interviews.

Playlist for TAL09 here.

Our next exploration: community enablers and digital tech

We are starting a new exploration at socialreporters: what are the skills, roles and approaches of community enablers, and how can they use the new digital tech tools for network building and neighbourhood change.
I’m using the term “community enabler” to cover people who may call themselves community organisers, builders, mobilisers, development workers, or network weavers. I hope people will find that acceptable as a neutral term, at least for now. As I wrote here, in a post for the People Powered Change exploration, there are many different models for neighbourhood change.
As I explained here, this exploration has developed from a number of storylines I’ve been following recently around network building, digital literacy, games, and hyperlocal media. The initial supporters are Community Matters – who are particularly interested in helping people understand the different models – and the Media4ME project. That aims to support people in neighbourhoods with high levels of ethnic diversity use social media to improve communication between communities and with local public sector bodies.
I’ll be working with long-time collaborator Drew Mackie, and anyone else who would like to join in. This post is by way of marker, and I’ll be adding detail over the next few weeks.
We’ll start on the lines of the current exploration with Nominet Trust, which is into ways that digital technologies can support young people to engage socially and economically with their communities. As I’ve outlined in this editable Google doc, the process will be:

  • Initial research into the community enablers.
  • Identifying and develop some main talking points
  • An event on May 10
  • Further research and discussion online, and other meetings
  • Leading to a report on community enablers, advice on using social media as part of neighbourhood change, and a kit for social reporters.

However, that may change … since this is by its nature an open process, and I hope to find various opportunities for collaborations as we go. There’s details in the doc of the event on May 10, and do get in touch if you are particularly interested – although places are limited. There will be other opportunities.
The next steps will be to expand the outline in the Google doc, and log research there. I’ll report developments on this blog. You can sign up for email updates top right, or subscribe to the category RSS feed in the sidebar. Comments very welcome, of course.
Update: I’ve now posted a report from the Talk About Local unconference this weekend, which offers lots of relevant insights for our exploration.
Earlier explorations

Digital Engagement Cookbook launched: how might we use it?

Consumer Focus have launched a Digital Engagement Cookbook on a website providing a large directory of engagement methods and guidance on what to use in different situations. The press release says that it is:

… to help local authorities, charities, retailers, service providers and campaign groups, amongst others, to explore the new opportunities that the digital world offers for engaging and empowering citizens and consumers. Digital engagement is not only important for organisations in the public, private and not for profit sectors, it also has the potential to change how individuals and communities live and interact. Taking part in local decision-making or discussing future policy can make a real difference to how people think about themselves and their role in society.


The website aims to help users decipher which technology-based methods are best-suited to consumer empowerment activities such as campaigning, consulting and collective action. It is one of the most comprehensive, categorised collections of digital engagement methods on the web and includes over 140 links to examples of them in action.
The website will help public engagement professionals to explore the full range of ways to engage consumers effectively, and think wider than social media or web-only methods. The Digital Engagement Cookbook examines methods from webinars and online forums, to serious games and crowdsourcing, and everything in-between. It offers practical examples and detail on putting the methods into practice. It also gives in

Consumer Focus recently produced a report Hands up and hands on – Understanding the new opportunities for localism and community empowerment which I wrote about here. That explored the (mainly non digital) challenges of local engagement in the context of the Government’s localism policies.
The Digital Engagement Cookbook site has been created for Consumer Focus by Dave Briggs and Fraser Henderson of KindofDigital and ParticiTech. I know both, and have great respect for their expertise in this area, which may colour my judgement! It is certainly a terrific resource, and as someone working in the field I delighted that they and Consumer Focus have done the hard work of assembling, categorising and linking methods.
Having said that, I think the big challenge for anyone seeking to use digital methods and the cookbook is, first, how to plan an overall engagement process, and then secondly how to blend online and other methods: the top message from our recent event.
There are links on the site to others providing guidance on that, but at the moment there isn’t really any integration with overall engagement process methodology. I’m guessing that trying to do that as well would have been quite a challenge.
Maybe the next step is for engagement practitioners to take a look, and reflect on how they could enhance their processes by drawing on the cookbook, and hopefully collaborating on some next stage development if that is planned.
Any ideas on how we might do that as part of our exploration here?

Top 10 messages from DTYE event

This Thursday we brought together a fantastic crowd of 25 thinkers, social entrepreneurs, funders, youth workers and young people at the RSA in London to explore some of the messages that had been emerging so far in our Young People and Digital Technology exploration.
In a packed two hour session we took some headline challenges faced by young people (youth unemployment; lack of youth influence of local decision making), and dug a bit deeper into them to find underlying challenges and unmet needs. With that as our context, we looked at the messages identified so far, which had been printed out as cards, and discussed them in groups to see how they might be relevant to the challenges.
I’ve just been working through all the notes from Thursday, and by looking through all the cards (which people could rate for importance), looking at which messages were chosen as relevant, and looking at the messages which have had attention in the online document so far, I’ve pulled out what look like the top-10 themes for us to explore further. Each message includes a brief summary, and then a link off to more details where you can also directly add to our working document – adding key questions for us to address in our follow up explorations, or sharing links to examples we should explore and draw upon.
This list is not set in stone, and might still change quite a bit before the final write up (you can make the case for changes in the document too…), but here’s the list as it stands today (the numbers are from the original set of cards):

Emerging messages

Planning a project that will use digital technology to address key challenges that young people face? Think about how you might:

19. Blend online and offline
Digital and online innovations don’t only have to be delivered online. Online tools can support local community building and action – and projects should plan to work both on the web, and in local or face-to-face settings.

6. Use games to engage
Adding an element of gaming to your project can provide the incentives for young people to get engaged. Collecting points, completing challenges and competing with others can all spur young people on to get involved and stay involved.
7. Address the innovation gaps in the back-office
Not all digital innovations have to be about directly using technology with young people. Putting better tools in the hands of frontline workers, and intermediaries who work with young people can create the biggest benefit.

17. Support young people to be creators, not consumers
Digital technology can enable young people to be content creators: “youth can learn video making, digital engagement etc. – and if it aims to be social and community focused – imagine the possibilities!”. Many youth don’t take advantage of digital opportunities for creativity – and action to support them to do so is important. From creating multimedia content, to providing feedback on the good and the bad – young people can be involved in shaping digital resources developed to support them.

3. Encourage co-design/co-design with young people
The only way to create services for young people, is in collaboration with young people. User-centred design, agile and iterative design methods all provide ways for young people to be involved through the process of creating innovative solutions.

4. Consider the livelihoods of the future
Digital technology is not just about easier ways to find a job: it changes the nature of work. Home working, portfolio working, freelancing and co-operative business structures are all enabled by the Internet. Better CVs and job information won’t solve the unemployment crisis: we need to use digital technologies to create and support new ways of working and making a living.

18. Use digital tools to enable peer-to-peer learning
In the Internet age education doesn’t have to be top-down, digital tools allow for peer-to-peer learning: helping people come together to teach, learn and collaborate.

24. Use technology to personalise services
Digital technologies can be used to aggregate content from multiple sources, and customise an individuals experience of online information. Young people out of work or education are not a homogeneous group: and have many different needs.
30. Be network literate and create new connections
Although young people might be using online social networks like Facebook all the time, the connections they have to inspiration, role models and opportunities for volunteering, education or employment can be limited. Think about how digital tools can help you to map out networks, and to make new connections that broaden the horizons and increase the resources accessible to young people.
30. Recognise the diversity of youth 
Who are the young people? Although there are many similarities across the 16-24 age group, there are also some key differences in how they use technology.

Reporting from the DTYE event

We had a terrific session today at the RSA – where we were discussing how digital technologies can support young people to engage socially and economically with their communities – as you can see from this quick collection of tweets from inside and outside the room, and video report back from discussion. More here on the event.

Here’s the report back from group discussions.

I’ll add more as we review content from the day.

Join us online discussing young people engaging through digital tech

Today is a high spot in our exploration, with Nominet Trust, of how digital technologies can support young people to engage socially and economically with their communities. We are meeting with 25 of the brightest and most enthusiastic people in field, both young and older, to build on the ideas we have crowdsourced so far.
We’ll be tweeting from the RSA, so you might like to see the agenda and materials to help make sense of the messages that we’ll be sharing, and pitch in with your own.
Here’s the agenda. Tim Davies has done a terrific job of taking the messages from background research, our open crowdsourcing doc, and blog posts, and creating a set of cards that will help focus group discussion.
10.30 – 10.45 – Introductions
10.45 – 11.15 – Identifying unmet challenges
We’ll be digging behind headline challenges of youth unemployment and young people feeling excluded from their communities to identify the unmet challenges where digital innovation may have a role to play. Working in small groups. 
11.15 – 11.45 – Identifying messages for digital innovation
Taking the unmet challenges, we’ll be building on the messages that have been shared and shaped so far to identify key provocations that can encourage effective digital innovation
11.45 – 12.30 – Sharing ideas and experiences
In small groups, or altogether, to discuss examples and ideas that point the way to disruptive and effective digitally enabled innovation.
After the event we’ll digest the conversations and ideas, and make that the basis for a fresh round of blog posts and other explorations. That will lead to a set of online resources and a report. As the Trust says:

The findings will be used to inform Nominet Trust and  help us shape and develop a specific challenge that will identify projects that can equip young people with the confidence, skills and motivation to address the social challenges that they and future generations face.

Tim and I have had enormous encouragement, support and expertise from Dan Sutch and Rachael Gant at Nominet Trust, so we really feel that tomorrow’s event, and the overall process, will play a useful part in shaping further developments. We’ll post more next week on how you can join in. Meanwhile, please follow and contribute on Twitter with the tag #dtye.
If you want to see how far we are reaching, take a look at this analysis (h/t Rachael), and please help us reach further.
Link summary


6 ways to use digital tech to support marginalised young people to engage socially and economically in their communities

Imagine you’re a young person of the future.
Imagine you’re a young person living right on the fringes of your society.
Imagine you’re a young person who’s spent the last 12 years in traditional schooling, has had enough and can’t wait to leave, even though you’ve no qualifications and only a handful of life skills.
Easy? Difficult? This post is about what any one of these young people might need to be able to engage and make a contribution.
1.    Inspire and believe in them
Stoke the fires of their interest and cultivate their enthusiasm for using digital tech to express their views, open or anonymously. Invest in them as producers of content and as each other’s consumers. The web’s already given many people a platform to do this and young people are leading the way in adoption of new tech that will tomorrow be commonly used.
2.    Ditch traditional approaches to education
Focus on unshackling them from institutionalised approaches to learning and the process you’ve got to go through to earn a living and be successful. Apps4good show us how to do this, taking a new approach into mainstream settings and showing young people there are ways to learn less conventional approaches to earning. It’s not just about taking new approaches into traditional places though, the web (and video in particular) offers anyone the ability to teach anyone else anything, in your own time, in your own place free from dogma. You can even earn money teaching other people useful stuff.
3.    Build for them
Relentlessly create new platforms that allow people to connect with one another. The Facebooks and Linkedins of 5 years will connect people in even smarter ways than they do now. Imagine being a young person on a bus and being able to look around you and view the social media profile of other travellers. Imagine being a successful business owner and being able to view the real time profiles (skills and talents) of young people travelling on the same bus as you. Barriers come down, new connections are made and partnerships are formed.
4.    Teach them how to engage others
Teach them user centred design. Teach them co-design.  They’ll be the one’s working with tomorrow’s youth to develop inclusive online and offline services for youth. Get this done now and we won’t be asking the same questions in five years time.
5.    Cherish the value of those on the edge
Value what young people on the fringes have to contribute. No one else can give their perspective as the rest are all ‘in-the-box’, not out of it. By people on the edge I mean the real minority groups within minority groups:  unschooled young people, young runaways, young people who’ve grown up in multiple countries, the ludicrously talented… Letting people on the edge lead can feel very risky but it’s often where the best ideas are born.  Edgeryders are a great example.
6.    Teach them to use tech to make tech
Teach them how to learn to use tech quickly. Develop their confidence in using tech to build tech. If you can learn rapidly and have support to believe yourself and make use of what you learn then you’re on your way to creating a living for yourself and connecting economically with society. If footballers can create apps then anyone can use tech to earn a living.
This article has been inspired by David Wilcox and Tim Davies’ call to contribute to a provocative post to their exploration into how digital technologies can support young people to engage socially and economically with their communities.
About the author: Joe mixes words and tech for social good. He’s a children’s advocate turned copywriter and digital innovator who’s learnt both the hard and easy ways the values and pitfalls of using technology to engage young people as users and stakeholders. He most recently co-led the Innovation Labs project. Find out more about him here and connect with him here.

Engagement requires blended facilitation: many methods, co-design, and time

Katie Bacon, director of Online Youth Outreach, has been delivering social media training for over four years across the UK, and responded to a request for a contribution to our exploration into how digital technologies can support young people to engage socially and economically with their communities. Katie advocates co-designing any processes, and a blend of methods. One size doesn’t fit all.
Each person attending the meeting has been invited to pre-pare a blog or questions to share. I wanted to blog about – Blended facilitation: Participative engagement of target audience (young people, colleagues, stakeholders, or community members) in highly productive conversations, whether face-to-face and remote, by applying the right facilitation technology and tools at the right time.
So in simple words – involve people who you want to talk to in the planning, development and delivery stages. Offer training and TIME to allow people to gain, rehearse and feel confident in co-facilitating. Be creative and realistic about what appeals and engages your audience i.e. music, drama, quiet space to talk, art, blogs, reports. online forums. voting, sharing comments under pictures, capturing film content. Again you need to offer training, guidance in bite size portions to allow people to ‘play’ and then express themselves. Need clear boundaries to keep everyone safe physically and psychologically.
In my view, blended facilitation is a continuous process. It starts at the point of an idea and or conversation taking place during a youth work session, staff meeting, conversation in a coffee room or in a work car park. Capturing the offline dialogue and translating that online (tweet, audio or mobile recording , facebook status update, photo or scribbled notes, sharing a web-link of an article that sparked the idea) to share with other people who may be interested or know someone else or an organisation who may have information, contacts, funding or training opportunities to help the idea flourish and grow.
Being consistent in uploading and sharing content along the journey to the end goal. Supporting people to micro-blog, create a photos storyboard, capture a discussion on camera and/or posting extracts from tweet #tag feeds. Throughout this process ‘reaching out’ to the people who can make change in local communities ie. Parent(s), community members, local MPs, District council members, senior managers of local educational boards, head teachers. Again, you need to share, show and support people how to access, use and be creative with digital tools i.e. parent(s) may not know how to tweet, a MP may have never logged onto a forum and posted a response, a head teacher may not know what a popcast is.
The key element in my view is not to impose new ideas or change but to understand the ‘starting point’ to the situation/challenge for the young person, young people, community members, colleagues, managers, council members, funders etc. Currently we are facing huge challenges that we as a collective need to deconstruct, understand and collaboratively form responses to high unemployment rates, sexual abuse of children and young people (NSPCC), isolation and negative portray of young people by main stream media, escalation of self harm & poor mental health in young people.
Blended facilitation requires me, you, us to ask:

  • What questions are they asking?
  • What is value base/boundaries for each person? Group? Community?
  • What conflict, misunderstanding have or could take place?
  • Are they interested?
  • What does success look like for each person? Group? Community?
  • What elements are capturing their interest?
  • What are their concerns/worst case scenarios going around their head?
  • What training/resources do they need?
  • Who do they trust?
  • How do they want to express their views?

I have been delivering social media training for over 4 years across the UK and typically organisations and practitioners are seeking a ‘one-fit-for-all’ solution to using social media. That is unrealistic and is discriminative to those who need different digital communication models, support or information. As practitioners we need to reflect and critically analyses our interpretation(s) and understanding of young peoples views and aspirations to build inclusive healthier and economically viable society. The challenge is have any of us lived or experienced that society. What is nirvana to a young person?
I am excited about the upcoming meeting and spending time listening and hearing various ideas that will bounce around the room to tackle the complexities that young people across the UK are experiencing.

Taking control of our own data, to get and offer what we wish

I love the way that open explorations – like our current one into how digital technologies can support young people to engage socially and economically with their communities – throw up new connections, and re-awaken old ones. So I was delighted to see Alex Stobart contributing ideas to our crowdsourcing document. I’ve know Alex for some years through his work in Scotland in public services, and the community, in social tech. I asked Alex to expand on his comment under “Make it easier for people to use their personal data to obtain services”. Alex sent me a copy of an article he wrote recently for Holyrood magazine with this reminder that there’s no free lunches, even on the Internet.

People’s personal data and activities support the valuation of Facebook, Google and Autonomy. Data underpins the internet; it could be called its currency. But the people do not receive full value in return. As with so many intangibles, we do not fully understand our data’s value and in particular how that value is realised by organisations without our involvement.
Until recently we have been content to use a browser, handing out our data and patterns of behaviour for others to capture, store and analyse to build a picture of us without any benefits being delivered back to us as individuals. Each step along the way leaves a digital footprint, or more likely, a fingerprint or clue trail. That data is worth trillions of pounds to organisations accessing and analysing it.
Very few people question why we receive a free service from the likes of Facebook or Google, companies that carry valuations of $100bn or more. In short, these companies analyse and sell the data fingerprints we leave on the internet to other organisations either in the form of behavioural analytics or as part of targeted advertising. Similarly, governments have some of the most valuable potential data sets in the world. Education and health research and a host of other quantitative and behavioural studies enable research to be carried out, and predictions made.
These views of the world are organisation-centric. They consider that if organisations accumulate data and information, then they will be able to share that to deliver better services. In some ways this is true. A business model such as Amazon is premised on understanding an individual’s behaviours and habits and providing them with more.

Alex goes on to explain in the article, and below, that for a more useful life online we need to take control of your own stuff, to get what we need, and offer what we wish, rather than just allowing organisations access to offer/sell what they want, however useful that may be. Alex now works with Mydex, which aims to help us do that. Alex writes:
David very kindly asked me to sketch a few examples of how personal data stores and services (PDS) might help young people.
At present, most information is presented in an Organisation centric way. The individual has to seek permission to do business with the organisation. myBT presents itself as being a way for the individual to engage, but it has no facility to send an email.
By contrast, Scottish Power does let you send an email, and I was pleasantly surprise to receive a reply within two hours.
The NHS does not normally let you see your patient record. In Scotland, one GP practice does, others will either try to charge you or offer you the address of another practice, rather than offering a patient-centric service. This means little potential for personalised, collaborative health and well-being to be offered, or relationships to grow between young people and their service providers.
In Scotland, you can have a Young Scot card between the age of 11 and 26. You can do a certain number of things with it, and it is innovative. However, along with many other cards, there is a tendency for mobile phone applications to support or potentially replace it. Nor is it a ubiquitous, joined up, means for young people to obtain an easier, simpler or more cost-effective life. It offers part, but not all of these attributes we seek.
So how might some of the emerging digital technologies help young people engage socially and economically with their communities?
Facebook delivers social innovation and gratification to young people. Young people might use Google to search for content, and as yet I have not seen any demographic analysis of Google + adoption and use. As far as I can tell, neither of them have as yet sparked a tremendous feeling of community across age groups, or added significant public value, although research may be forthcoming that does show their impact.
Until the individual becomes the centre of integration, the status quo will likely prevail. It is mathematically impossible to have a single view of the customer, when there are more than 2,000 government agencies in UK fighting to make themselves the prime owner of our information. The Government Digital Service is addressing elements of this, although the Cabinet Office will likely need HM Treasury support and understanding of just how PDS can simplify transactions and save money.
In a user-led future, individuals will create personal data stores, services and an eco-system. The eco-system and Apps that grow around it will enable young people to contribute in new ways. They will require convenience, trust and security, of which the greatest need among young people is convenience.
So, for example, young people might have a Personal Data Store which they will populate with their personal information ( health ; employability ; benefits ; education ; consumer preferences ; work experience ), and then voluntarily share certain aspects of that with e.g. FE College, Employers, DWP, family members in order to progress their employment prospects.
Everything can then be under the young person’s control, and they are the point of integration. Being able to do this from a personal data store saves time, effort and cost for the young person.
So, young people might act as the digital proxy, or digital carer for older people in their community. They may then be able to co-produce public services, or volunteer personal information or personal budgets to third parties, so that young and old members in the community can work together for better outcomes.
A young person could help their older relative record medical information, for onward transmission to their personal health record. Or they could assist in sharing volunteered personal information about their energy consumption, financial services information or any other aspect of “care” in the widest possible sense.
To deliver these use cases, and others, Mydex is creating the means for individuals to be at the centre, by equipping themselves with personal data stores and services.

BIG co-designs its new investment with young people, openly

One of the big advantages of open explorations like our current one, compared with more closed research methods, is that you can rapidly see what other explorers are doing, build on their work, and perhaps join up.
Big Lottery Fund – with whom we worked last year – are now undertaking an even more ambitous exploration with a group of 16-25 year olds (pictured above) to see what will benefit other young people in England. During 2012 and 2013 BIG will be investing funds “in ideas that will inspire young people in need to build on their strengths and make a difference to their lives and communities”.
They are not just asking young people for ideas – they are going some way to co-design their investment plans.

Throughout March and April, twenty young people will help develop the investment. They will be presented with evidence on issues like poverty, education, unemployment and mental health and will discuss how each issue affects the lives of young people. The team will also capture learning from the process and use social media to enable other young people and those working with them to have their say.
The young people involved will benefit from training and support from BIG staff and will gain new skills and valuable experience. They also have a unique opportunity to meet other young people who want to make a difference.

Their team blogger Reanna Vernon, 21, has already posted a number of pieces on the BIG blog. Reanna reports that the design team met recently and reviewed work of groups looking at theories of change and social media:

Using the input of these two other groups, the design team were able to spend the weekend exploring the issues young people and those who work with them had highlighted as priorities for the investment. These were:

  • Unemployment
  • Mental health and wellbeing
  • Young people’s portrayal in society

I asked each member of the design team why each area should be a priority for BIG.
Daniel (18, Essex) explained youth employment should be a priority area: “If BIG can do just a little part to show the opportunities that are out there, maybe young people will be more motivated.” He highlighted that it is important to “stay positive and find a role model who can guide you” when looking for work.
For Vicky (20, Birmingham), tackling mental health issues is key, as they are “such a complex issues and can affect everyone – we really need to get to the heart of the matter.”
Discussing the negative media image of young people, Topes (20, London) told me, “It’s a major issue as the media has influence over everyone and no matter which paper you read, you rarely find a good story about young people.”
Jashmin, (23, London) agrees that the media could do more to combat negative perceptions: “The media only ever put out the most catchy story… they just gave a basic story of a hero and a villain without exploring the underlying issues, which really doesn’t help.”

BIG staff will be along to our meeting next Thursday, and involved in further discussions, so there’s great scope for collaboration. It looks as if the BIG process will yield a lot of insights into the real concerns and needs of young people. Jonny Zander, in his recently post, gives us a useful framework for thinking on what we mean by “engagement”. John Popham offers some initial insights into the benefits of digital. I think we’ll be hearing more on Thursday from Alastair Somerville about the Birmingham SkillxShop and app.
So – only a few blog posts into the exploration, and already things are joining up. That’s the other advantage of exploring openly – you gather momentum along the way, and write the report as you go.